Lung cancer - signs and symptoms

Symptoms of lung cancer are varied depending on where and how and how widespread is tumor formation. The warning signs are sometimes hard to identify or even nonexistent. Lung cancer may have the following types of symptoms:

-without symptoms - around 25% of people ill in the early phase present no symptoms. The disease can be discovered in a routine (a ray or a CT scan), the tumor may be the size of a coin.

-appearance of the faction of the tumor and its tendency to develop metastases to organs cities give some symptoms, such as: breathing, wheezing, chest pain, coughing up blood. If the disease has appeared and invaded the surrounding nerves, may occur Pancoast's syndrome - shoulder pain, which descends to the outside arm or paralysis of vocal cords, which cause wheezing. Invasion of the esophagus results in difficulty swallowing. If the tumor obstructs the airways, it can cause collapse of parts of the lung; this leads to the formation of infection in that area: abscesses, pneumonia.

-symptoms caused by metastases - there are times when metastasis of lung cancer affects some bones - in this case appear severe pain in affected bones. If metastasis includes brain, neurological problems: head pain, headaches, seizures, blurred vision and stroke like symptoms: weakness, lack of sense of touch in certain areas of the body.
-paraneoplastic symptoms: are indirect symptoms that result from disruption of hormone secretion: production of adrenocorticotrop hormone (ACTH), which leads to increased secretion of adrenal glands (Cushing's syndrome). The most common disorder caused by lung cancer is the secretion of parathyroid hormone-like substances, which recognizes the increasing level of calcium in the blood.

-non-specific symptoms: they are common to other cancers and are physical and mental: sudden weight loss, weakness and fatigue, depression, sudden changes of mood without cause, unjustified melancholy.

Consult a doctor if:
-is a persistent cough or worsen a chronic cough;
-blood in the sputum appears;
brose is ascertained or frequent respiratory infections;
-is a persistent pain in the chest;
-breathing difficulties, wheezing.

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Different types of lung cancer

Types of lung cancer, also known as the bronchogenice carcinomas are generally classified into two categories: small cell lung cancer (CPCM) and cancer non-small cell lung (NSCLC). This classification is based on microscopic appearance of tumor cells themselves. These two types of cancers grow and spread in different ways and have different treatment options. Getting the type of pulmonary cancer is of particular importance.

Approximately 20% of lung cancer cases are detected CPCM; this form is very aggressive and has a very high growth rate. CPCM is closely related to smoking, only 1% of cases these tumors occurring in nonsmokers. CPCM rapidly develop metastases in other organs of the body. CPCM is found most often after already spread in the body.

NSCLC is the most common form of lung cancer, representing approximately 80% of all lung cancer cases. For his type of NSCLC cancer can be divided into three main types, depending on the type of cells comprising the tumor formation. There are the following types:

-Adenocarcinomas: is the most common type of NSCLC - up to 50% of cases. This type of cancer occurs in both smokers and people who have this defect. Most adenocarcinomas occur in peripheral areas outside the lungs. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma is a subtype of adenocarcinoma that frequently develops in several areas of the lungs and spreads along the alveolar walls.

Squamous-cell carcinomas were more frequent than adenocarcinomas previously, currently, they account for approximately 30% of NSCLC. May be known as epidermoid carcinoma, this type of cancer (squamous cell) occurs most frequently in the bronchi.

Large-cell carcinomas, sometimes referred to as undifferentiated carcinomas, are the common type of NSCLC.

-Mixtures of different types of NSCLC are also seen.

Other cancers can occur in the lungs, these types are much less common than NSCLC and CPCM and together contain only 5% -10% of cases of lung cancer:

There are bronchial carcinoid, (maximum 5% of cases). These tumors are generally small (3-4 cm or less) and occur most frequently in people under 40 years. Not related to smoking. Carcinoidele generally grow and spread more slowly than other types of tumors. If they are detected in time can be solved by surgery.
Various other types of cancer can be used as vehicle flow of blood or lymphatic system to develop metastases in the lungs. Metastatic tumors are often multiple, scattered throughout the lung. They generally focus to the periphery and are now less in the center.

To be continued

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Lung cancer - II - Causes


Incidence of lung cancer is correlated with smoking, about 90% of cases with smoking as the main cause. The risk increases with increasing the number of cigarettes smoked (doctors talk about this risk in terms of packs of cigarettes smoked per year, for example a person who smokes 1 pack per day for 10 years is known to have a history of 10 packs - years of smoking).

Pipe or cigar smoking is not healthy but have a slightly lower risk.
Cigarette smoke contains over 4,000 chemicals, many of which are certainly, scientific proved carcinogens. The risk of lung cancer decreases each year elapsed since quitting smoking. The risk comes close to the people who do not smoke at about 15 years of quitting smoking. This period is necessary for the body to replace damaged cells with healthy others. Are you a smoker? Quit today!

Passive smoking

Passive smoking is the inhalation of cigarette smoke by people who, although not smoke, live or work with people who smoke. The risk of these personae of the disease is 24% higher risk than those who do not smoke.

Asbestos fibers

Asbestos fibers are silicate fibers that were used in the past to insulate and protect the premises or to cover the various buildings. Presently the use of these fibers is prohibited or permitted only under special conditions. Asbestos fibers penetrated into the lungs may persist there for years, eventually generating disease. Cancer risk increases pulmonary extreme than if smokers working in environments contaminated by asbestos fibers.


Radon is an inert gas that occurs as a secondary product in the reaction of obtaining uranium. About 12% of lung cancer cases are due to radon. Although it is a colorless gas and have no smell there is technology for detection and annihilation of radon.


Although most cases of lung cancer are directly related to smoking, there are cases of nonsmokers who develop the disease; this seems to suggest that the disease may be triggered genetically. Recent research seems to indicate that the gene responsible for lung cancer in nonsmokers is located on human chromosome no. 6.


Pollution generated by cars, factories, chemical plants increases the risk of lung cancer among those exposed. About 1% of deaths are due to pollution. Experts believe that breathing polluted air present the same risk of passive smoking.

To be continued

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Lung cancer - I - Intro

Lung cancer is a serious, high risk disease. There are many important things to be said about this disease, so we will structure this article into more chapters. This one is the first one.

Lung cancer, like all cancers, result from an anomaly in the fundamental unit of life cell. Normally the body maintains a system of checks and balances on economic growth in cells such as cells divide to produce new cells only when necessary. Disorders of this system of checks and balances result in an increase in cell division and uncontrolled proliferation of cells that eventually forms a mass known as tumor.

Benign tumors can usually be removed and not spread to other parts of the body. Malignant tumors, on the other hand, grow aggressively and invade other tissues of the body, which allows entry of tumor cells in the blood or lymphatic system and then to other organs. This spread is called metastasis; tumor growth areas in these organs are called metastases. Since lung cancer tends to spread or develop metastases very early, we can say that is a serious form of cancer, high risk and it is also difficult to treat.

While lung cancer can spread to any organ in the body, certain organs - particularly the adrenal glands, liver, brain, bones are the organs most commonly affected, with a high risk of developing metastases. Metastasis tumor is composed of the same type of cells as the original tumor. For example, prostate cancer, if it spreads through the blood to the lungs, talk about prostate cancer in lung cancer, not lung cancer.

The main function of the lungs is gas exchange between blood and the air we breathe. The work of the lungs, carbon dioxide is removed from the blood and the inspired oxygen enters the bloodstream. Right lung has three lobes, whereas left lung is divided into two lobes and a smaller structure called the lingula which is equivalent to the middle lobe. Major airways into the lungs are the bronchi, resulting in the trachea. Bronchi branch into progressively smaller airways called bronchiole. They end in small bags known as pulmonary alveoli. The wafers are exchanged gas itself. Lungs and chest wall are covered with a thin layer of tissue called pleura.

Various types of lung cancer can occur in any part of the lung, but 90% -95% of lung cancer cases are believed to originate from epithelial tissues, or cells lining the respiratory tract and older children (bronchi and bronhiolele), for this reason, forms of cancer are bronhogenics sometimes called carcinoma or bronchogenic cancers. Cancers can arise also from the pleura (thin layers of tissue surrounding the lungs) or, rarely, from blood vessels.

Lung cancer is the most common cause of death among people with cancer. According to the U.S. National Cancer Institute, about 1 in 14 people in USA will contact disease during their life.
Lung cancer generally occurs in older age, 70% of those affected with over 65 years, only 3% of cases occur in people under 45 years.
Pulmonary cancer was a relatively rare disease before 1930, but the number of cases increased rapidly with the increasing number of smokers, and developing industrialization.
Lately however is noted a slight decrease in the number of cases due to awareness of the negative role of smoking and quitting the habit and also because anti-tobacco campaigns.
However, lung cancer remains the leading cause of death among females; the number of deaths exceeded the number of deaths due to breast cancer.

(To be continued)

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Blood Cancer - Leukemia

Leukemia is also known as cancer of the blood. In real terms leukemia is a cancer of white blood cells (WBC) and of platelets. These factors help blood to clot. Significantly reducing the number of white blood cells leave the body weak, defenseless against germs, such as a mild disease, such as a simple cold can cause serious effects or even death.

Decreased number of platelets leads to delayed clotting of blood, so some wounds, even superficial is cicatrize heaviest bleeding at the slightest touch.

Acute leukemia is a fast growing disease which usually affects their status embryonic cells. Because of that affected cells can not differentiate according to their body and no body can provide the necessary functionality. These cells are described in the literature as "functional" because they do not behave like normal cells. Thus it reduced the number of new red cells caused by spinal cord; it leads to a typical form of anemia.

On the other hand, chronic leukemia develops gradually and allows partial development of cells, which can reach their mostly "task" specific
but due to the increasing number of white blood cells blood flow is slowed and it triggers a form of severe anemia.

Leukemia can be classified Peter basic categories:
-AML - acute myeloid leukemia;
-ALL - acute lymphocytic leukemia;
-CML - chronic myeloid leukemia;
-CLL - chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Suffering from acute leukemia has the following symptoms:
-breathing during physical activity;
slow-healing wounds, even superficial, heavy bleeding;
mild fever and night sweats;
-bruises without apparent reason;
-red spots under the skin;
-small number of white blood cells;
-pain in the bones or joints;

In terms of chronic leukemia, it is more difficult to detect because symptoms do not clear, there are many patients whose disease was discovered accidentally during routine testing. Occasionally, one can see lymph nodes in the neck, armpits or groin. In this case it is obligatory to consult a specialist and make a complete set of blood tests. If the disease is severe, can occur and events such as fatigue increased even if a smaller effort or frequent infections.
Confirmation of disease may be made only after complex tests such as bone marrow aspiration and biopsy of the spine. The tests should be repeated at regular intervals doctor to judge the course of the disease and determining treatment followed.

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About brain cancer

Brain cancer is a disease of the brain cancer cells (malignant) appear in brain tissue. Cancer cells grow to form a mass of cancerous tissue (tumor) that interferes with brain functions such as muscle control, sensation, memory, and other normal body functions. Tumors composed of cancer cells are called malignant tumors, and those composed of non-cancerous cells are called benign tumors. Cancer cells that develop in brain tissue are called primary brain tumors while the tumor that spread from other organs and affects the brain are called metastases brain tumors.

The statistics suggest that this type of cancer occurs rarely and is likely to grow to approximately 22,000 people in 2009, with about 13,000 deaths – it is estimated by the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

Not all brain tumors are the same, even if they come from the same type of brain tissue. Tumors can be distinguished in degree depending on how the tumor cells appear under a microscope. There is a class division, depending on cancer cell growth rate. NCI lists the following classes of tumors:

-Grade I: the tissue is benign. Cells look almost like normal cells, and growth is slow.
-Grade II: the tissue is malignant. Cells look less like normal cells than tumor cells in a Grade I.
-Grade-III malignant tissue has cells that look very different from normal cells. Abnormal cells are growing actively (anaplastic).
-Grade-IV malignant tissue has cells that look abnormal and most tend to grow rapidly.
The most common primary brain tumors are usually named after the type of tissue in the brain have developed. They are gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, vestibular schwannomas, and neuroectodermal tumors (medulloblastomas). Gliomas have more subtypes that include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, and choroid papillomas. If the tumor classes are coupled with tumor name, the name will give physicians a better understanding of the severity of brain cancer. For example, a grade III (anaplastic) glioma is an aggressive tumor, while an acoustic neuroma is a benign tumor grade I. However, even benign tumors can cause serious problems if the increase
large enough to cause increased intracranial pressure or vascular structures or obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid flow.

Can anyone cure cancer?

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Breast cancer can be defeated?

Sometimes breast cancer spreads in other parts of the body become metastatic breast cancer. Sometimes, though treatments are made, the cancer cells do not die entirely; some may survive and can spread in the body, sickness and other organs and generating other tumors.

Metastatic breast cancer may develop in two ways: after stopping some cells can survive and can spread in the body, which develop other tumors or during treatment. It is often the case in which metastatic disease is diagnosed so late, when treatment is ongoing, that chances of survival become very fragile.

There are situations when other organs such as lung, liver, bones, brain and other organs may suffer abnormal structure and / or operational. It is a metastasis of breast cancer and not a new form of cancer. In this case the chances of survival are somewhat higher, generally because breast cancer has a high rate of improvement and even healing.

Three of ten patients with breast cancer subsequently develop metastatic form of breast cancer. If no other body has not been affected by metastasis, and cancer cells register a decline after the end of treatment, there is good chance of survival.

Because of its nature, breast cancer requires extensive treatment. Therapies are generally applied: chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, immune therapy combined with regular mammography, ultrasound, CT scans, MRIs, etc. To treat the whole body must be implemented systemic therapies. For treatment of specific organs are local treatments such as mastectomy and lumpectomy. Also be made and therapies to alleviate pain.

It is important to know that there are many cases of women who survived the disease. Life lived with joy and optimism is a real help to overcome this ugly disease. There will never lose hope, with optimism and strength, but also with your doctor the disease can be defeated.

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Skin cancer - increased frequency

Skin cancer is a disease with a frequency of occurrence of increasingly large. This happens because people are at greater risk.
So what causes skin cancer? This article will answer that question and detail, which is at greatest risk.

Probably the most common cause is prolonged exposure to sunlight. Remember when people used to boast of bronze from the sea? You must know that in recent years the sun has changed the type of radiation it emits, and ozone thinning. Such as solar radiation became dangerous. It is necessary to protect people with a shirt, sun hat, glasses, creams and other solar radiation.

It is proven that prolonged exposure to sunlight increases the risk of skin cancer.
Pain arising from heatstroke is warning that the body gives us that we do something wrong.

People who "burn" very soon have a shortage of melanin in the body. Melanin is a substance found in skin, hair and eyes and is responsible for producing pigments. People with less melanin will be whiter skin, blond hair and iris of a lighter. The most pronounced deficit of melanin is known as albinism. Albinos have very little color in the tissues (or no).

How the melanin protects the skin is darkening it often comes into contact with sunlight. This is known as a suntan and body is how to prevent sunburn and therefore skin cancer. However, it is a very fine line between sun-tanned skin and damaged skin.

Using equipment that result in exposure to UV radiation is another way to increase the risk of skin cancer. Lounge chair is a prime example. Rest on the chair is beneficial to the body, but that's too much damage, if it is excessive can easily reach a peiele disease.

In summary, you should protect against ultra-violet radiation. The sun is not as it was 20 years ago.

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About Neuro-endocrine Carcinoma

One of many forms of cancer is aggressive and devastating neuro-endocrine carcinoma of the colon. The worst feature of this disease is that it is usually detected in advanced stages, at which it is often difficult to treat.

Neuroendocrine colon cancer symptoms become visible only in the advanced stages, so the patient survival rate diminishes. Malignant tumors are mostly detected with remote metastases. Most recent studies show that in almost all cases of neuroendocrine cancer patient's death occurs.

Research findings are pessimistic, the final results of this type of cancer are the same, regardless of age or sex of sick person or location of the tumor. Although neuroendocrine carcinoma of the colon depends on the stage where the tumor, generally patients in stages 1 and 2 of the disease do not suffer from this type of colon cancer (neuroendocrine). In most cases where the tumor is in stage 3 or 4, is very difficult to determine if it is this form of cancer.

Unfortunately, medical science failed to develop any appropriate method to deal with this particular type of cancer. A technique that could use the method of immunohistochemical staining. This method helps doctors to determine the severity of colon cancer and helps determine neuroendocrine useful drug for treating and improving it. Colorarii immunohistochemical method is used specifically for neuroendocrine markers. This involves staining tumor with a monoclonal antibody-80, which will help identify the quantum of neuroendocrine differentiation and the nature of damage to the health of patients.

Unfortunately, neuroendocrine cancer of the colon has a good prognosis and surgery is often powerless against this disease.
For these reasons it is necessary to monitor population health status, so as to take appropriate measures since the first symptoms of illness.

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