Breast Cancer - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Breast cancer is a malignant (cancerous) growth that begins in the tissues of the breast. Over the course of a lifetime, one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer. Breast cancer is a cancer of the breast tissue, which can occur in both women and men. Breast cancer may be one of the oldest known forms of cancer tumors in humans.Worldwide, breast cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death (after lung cancer, stomach cancer, liver cancer, and colon cancer). Breast cancer kills more women in the United States than any cancer except lung cancer. Today, breast cancer, like other forms of cancer, is considered to be a result of damage to DNA. How this mechanism may occur comes from several known or hypothesized factors (such as exposure to ionizing radiation, or viral mutagenesis). Some factors lead to an increased rate of mutation (exposure to estrogens) and decreased repair (the BRCA1, BRCA2 and p53) genes. Alcohol generally appears to increase the risk of breast cancer.

Breast cancer can also occur in men, although it rarely does. Experts predict 178,000 women and 2,000 men will develop breast cancer in the United States. There are several different types of breast cancer. First is Ductal carcinoma begins in the cells lining the ducts that bring milk to the nipple and accounts for more than 75% of breast cancers. Second is Lobular carcinoma begins in the milk-secreting glands of the breast but is otherwise fairly similar in its behavior to ductal carcinoma. Other varieties of breast cancer can arise from the skin, fat, connective tissues, and other cells present in the breast. Some women have what is known as HER2-positive breast cancer. HER2, short for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, is a gene that helps control cell growth, division, and repair. When cells have too many copies of this gene, cell growth speeds up.

Causes of Breast Cancer

Simply being a woman is the main risk for breast cancer. While men can also get the disease, it is about 100 times more common in women than in men. The chance of getting breast cancer goes up as a woman gets older. Nearly 8 out of 10 breast cancers are found in women age 50 or older. About 5% to 10% of breast cancers are linked to changes (mutations) in certain genes. The most common gene changes are those of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Breast cancer risk is higher among women whose close blood relatives have this disease. The relatives can be from either the mother’s or father’s side of the family. Woman with cancer in one breast has a greater chance of getting a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. This is different from the first cancer coming back Many experts now believe that the main reason for this is because they have faster growing tumors. Asian, Hispanic, and American Indian women have a lower risk of getting breast cancer. Certain types of abnormal biopsy results can be linked to a slightly higher risk of breast cancer.Women who have had radiation treatment to the chest area (as treatment for another cancer) earlier in life have a greatly increased risk of breast cancer

Some pregnant women were given the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) because it was thought to lower their chances of losing the baby. Recent studies have shown that these women (and their daughters who were exposed to DES while in the uterus), have a slightly increased risk of getting breast cancer. Use of alcohol is clearly linked to a slightly increased risk of getting breast cancer. Women who have 1 drink a day have a very small increased risk. Those who have 2 to 5 drinks daily have about 1½ times the risk of women who drink no alcohol. The American Cancer Society suggests limiting the amount you drink.Being overweight is linked to a higher risk of breast cancer, especially for women after change of life and if the weight gain took place during adulthood. Also, the risk seems to be higher if the extra fat is in the waist area. Breast-feeding and pregnancy: Some studies have shown that breast-feeding slightly lowers breast cancer risk, especially if the breast-feeding lasts 1½ to 2 years. This could be because breast-feeding lowers a woman’s total number of menstrual periods, as does pregnancy. Women who began having periods early (before 12 years of age) or who went through the change of life (menopause) after the age of 55 have a slightly increased risk of breast cancer.

Symptoms of Breast Cancer

1.Lumps.

2.Rash.

3.Breast Pain.

4.Cysts.

5.Nipple Discharge.

6.Inverted Nipple.

Treatment of Breast Cancer

1.Hormonal therapy (with tamoxifen).

2.Chemotherapy.

3.Radiotherapy.

4.Surgery.


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Cancer - One in Two Men and One in Three Women Will Get It. What to Do?

There is nothing that puts more fear in people than a diagnosis of Cancer. Statistically speaking, we now have one in two chances (male) or one in three chances (female) of getting cancer before the end of our life (American Cancer Society statistics for the year 2003). At the beginning of the 20th century, statistics gave us one in 500 chances of getting cancer.

All cancers considered, if you have a primary cancer (in one location only) the most optimistic statistics only give you 28% chances of recovery. If you have metastatic cancer (in more than one location) then your chances of recovery are 0.1% or in other words, one chance in one thousand to recover - (statistics from Dr Philip Binzel book "Alive and Well" published by American Media).

The news is bleak to say the least. However, as we will see later on, this need not be the case.

Ever since I can remember, I have read newspaper articles, heard claims on TV or radio, reporting new "wonder" cures on the war against cancer. Victory against this terrible disease was, according to these reports, just around the corner. Why is it then that so many people are still dying from this disease? Are the 600 UK cancer charities (The largest UK charities being Imperial Cancer Research Fund, Cancer Research Campaign and Institute of Cancer Research) lying to us?

The "American Cancer Society" is the richest charity in the world. All debts paid, it would still have half a billion dollars in the bank!

Linus Pauling, the winner of two Nobel prizes, seemed to think so when he said: "Everyone should know that most cancer research is largely a fraud and that the major cancer research organisations are derelict in their duties to the people who support them."

What is Cancer?

Modern researchers have for many years been exploring the virus connection at a cost of billions of dollars and pounds. The pitiful result is that "no cancer that was incurable 25 years ago is curable today and that, for the most common cancers that kills 90% of patients today chemotherapy is no better than snake oil" (The Cancer Handbook. What Doctors don't tell you publication. By Lynne Taggart).

When you are diagnosed with cancer, what the doctor is really saying is that you have one or several tumours in your body and that at least one of the tumours contains some cancer cells. They see the tumours as the enemy that has to be fought and destroyed and all their efforts are directed against eradicating the tumours.

What is a tumour though? A tumour is only a symptom; it shows that something has gone wrong in your body and that your immune system is no longer available to fight it. Many researchers claim that we all have tumours in our body and that several times in our life we get cancer. However, we do not all die from cancer. The reason is that our body's defence mechanism spring into action when a tumour is formed and gets rid of it or at least neutralises it. If cancer cells are beginning to form, these are killed off by our immune system and all is back to normal.

However if for some reason our immune system is severely deficient and we are unable to fight off the formation of the cancerous cells, then disease spreads.

What needs to be done to fight the tumour is not so much to remove it (surgery), burn it (radiation) or poison it (chemotherapy) as all these will weaken our immune system (damaging both our liver and kidneys to a point where it is difficult for our body to fight off any health problem). But to find out why the tumour formed in the first place and remove the cause.

Fighting it according to Dr Binzel is no good, our body now has in its memory the recipe to form tumours and uses the negative ingredients we feed it with to form new tumours and it will rarely stop doing so unless we remove the cause. The lack of positive ingredients (Vitamins, minerals and essential enzymes) to fight off the tumour is just as important.

Let me compare this reasoning with the simple example of a tooth infection. There is no point in taking painkillers to fix the tooth. I grant you that they will probably relieve the pain but I profess that they will not cure the tooth. What needs to be done is to get rid of the infection with antibiotics or have the tooth removed.

What do cancer cells feed on?

Several factors such as diet, negative emotions/ stress and environmental toxins are usually responsible for the development of cancer. Dietary speaking, cancer cells need food to survive. Dr Otto Warburg received the Nobel Prize for scientifically proving that cancer feed from the fermentation of sugar:

"in cancer cells [the feeding] is replaced by an energy-yielding reaction of the lowest living forms; namely, a fermentation of glucose" (quoted in prevention - May 1968).

According to Macrobiotic medicine theory, cancer cells also feed on animal protein (all types of meat, especially chicken but also very much on dairy, eggs etc..)

Detecting cancer

Currently, surgeons often perform a biopsy when cancer is suspected. A biopsy is a way of extracting a quantity of matter from a tumour and test it to see if it is cancerous. The problem with this method is that if the tumour is cancerous and the tumour is punctured, there is a definite risk that the cancerous liquid will spread to surrounding cells and spread the cancer around the body (Roger Delin - medical analyst - Philippines.

Breast cancer is often diagnosed using a mammogram. The main manufacturer of mammographic equipment is a company called "Smarlight Mammographics". They state: "We expected error rates to be around 30%, but the wide range of results (10%-90%) was an eye-opener." Amazing admission from the largest manufacturer of what is considered as the ultimate test to detect breast cancer. Unbelievable !

It is interesting to learn that autopsies have shown that many undetected cancers were present in the body of people who died from other causes. This makes a mockery of medical statistics and confirms that in fact a substantial number of cancers are never detected and do not obligatorily cause death.

A Swedish study has revealed that 15% of major cancers were not revealed before death and around half were of a type normally considered fatal (ref: wddty).

Modern approach and progress on cancer

The modern approach to treat cancer is surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormones and immunotherapy. The percentage of oncologists (cancer doctors) who would not participate in chemotherapy trials is an alarming 75% (due to its toxicity).
John Robbins

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Detect your Cervical Cancer With Pap Test!

Cervical cancer is the cancer of the cervix. It is a disease caused by the abnormal growth and division of cells that forms in the lining of the cervix. It is the second common form of cancer that affects women today. It is very common in middle age women and older.

The statistics of cervical cancer in the United States, according to American Cancer Society (ACS), shows that about 11,150 women are diagnosing with this cancer and approximately 3,670 women die from this cancer every year.

To understand more about cervical cancer, it is important to note what a cervix is first. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects the uterus to the vagina (birth canal) in a woman's body.

Usually, cervical cancer exhibits no symptoms to detect the presence of cancer in your body. It is known as a slow growing form of cancer. When cancer develops in your body, the healthy cells in the cervix begin to change into abnormal cells, which then turn into pre-cancerous cells. If left untreated, these pre-cancerous cells will turn into cancer.
Risk factors of cervical cancer:
Although the cause of cervical cancer is not known there are certain risk factors that increase the risk of developing this cancer. Risk factors are the things that will affect the chances of developing a disease greater.

Human Papilloma Virus (HPV), a sexual transmitted disease is highly associated with invasive cervical cancer.

Sexual transmitted diseases occur due to sexual contacts with an infected person. Chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea, genital herpes, HIV/AIDS are some of he examples of sexual transmitted diseases.

Other risk factors that increase your chances of developing cervical cancer are: a history of sexual transmitted diseases, having sexual intercourse with multiple partners, having sexual activities in very young age (without using contraceptives).

Smoking doubles your risk of having cancer of the cervix. Weakened immune system, regular usage of birth control pills, age, giving birth to many children, and irregular pap tests increases your risk of developing cervical cancer.

As the cause of cervical cancer is unknown, it can be detected with regular Pap tests or pap smears. It is very important for you to have regular Pap tests to identify the condition early to take appropriate treatment and prevent cervical cancer from developing.
Pap test to detect cervical cancer:
With Pap tests, you can detect the cancer in the early stages before it spreads to other parts of the body. Pap smear is a procedure where scraped cells from the cervix are examined under a microscope to check for the changes in the cells of your cervix that leads to cervical cancer.

The rate of cervical cancer in women has greatly decreased in recent years in the United States due to regular pap smears.

As cervical cancer is a malignant tumor, it is very important for you to have Pap tests done annually. Remember, it is not a good idea to wait for signs to consult a doctor as early detection is the key to being treated successfully. Visit Online Cancer Blog

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Information About Various Types of Cancer

The organs and tissues of the body are made up of tiny building blocks called cells. Cancer is a disease of these cells. Cells in different parts of the body may look and work differently but most reproduce themselves in the same way.

Cells are constantly becoming old and dying, and new cells are produced to replace them. Normally, cells divide in an orderly and controlled manner. If for some reason the process gets out of control, the cells carry on dividing, developing into a lump which is called a tumour.

Cancer is a term for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and can invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through the blood and lymph systems.

Brain Cancer

A brain tumor is a group or clump of abnormally growing cells that can be found in or on the brain. They're rare in kids Brain tumors can either start in the brain or spread there from another part of the body - some cancers that start in other parts of the body may have cells that travel to the brain and start growing there.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and the earlier you started smoking, the greater your risk of lung cancer. High levels of pollution, radiation and asbestos exposure may also increase risk. Cancer that forms in tissues of the lung, usually in the cells lining air passages. The two main types are small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer.

It usually spreads to different parts of the body more slowly than small cell lung cancer. Squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma are three types of non-small cell lung cancer. Small cell lung cancer also called oat cell cancer, accounts for about 20% of all lung cancer.

Skin Cancer

Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. The two most common types are basal cell cancer and squamous cell cancer. They usually form on the head, face, neck, hands and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Skin cancers are the fastest growing type of cancer in the United States. Skin cancer represents the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, surpassing lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. Cancer that forms in tissues of the skin. There are several types of skin cancer. Skin cancer that forms in melanocytes (skin cells that make pigment) is called melanoma. Skin cancer that forms in basal cells (small, round cells in the base of the outer layer of skin) is called basal cell carcinoma

Ear Cancer

Cancer of the outer ear occurs chiefly in instances where the outer ear has been exposed for many years to direct sunlight. A small and at first painless ulcer, with a dry scab covering it, that slowly enlarges and deepens may be a skin cancer. It is diagnosed by removing a small bit of tissue from the edge and examining it under a microscope.

Head And Neck Cancer

Tobacco is the most preventable cause of these deaths a lump in the neck Cancers that begin in the head or neck usually spread to lymph nodes in the neck before they spread elsewhere. A lump in the neck that lasts more than two weeks should be seen by a physician as soon as possible. Of course, not all lumps are cancer. But a lump (or lumps) in the neck can be the first sign of cancer of the mouth, throat, voice box (larynx), thyroid gland, or of certain lymphomas or blood cancers. Such lumps are generally painless and continue to enlarge steadily.

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Ovarian Cancer - Don't Ignore the Warning Signs

Around 1.5 percent of women are likely to develop ovarian cancer at some stage of their life. It is less common than breast cancer but is considered as the most serious and fatal of all gynecological cancers.

The reason for this is that the cancer is usually advanced before it is diagnosed, making treatment difficult. The ovaries cannot be easily examined and, because the warning signs are unclear, late diagnosis is common.

Because of the lack of screening tests available, it is imperative to know the early symptoms and the possible risk factors.

Understanding ovarian cancer

The ovaries are two small organs that are a part of the female reproductive system and they are situated each side of the uterus. These ovaries contain germ cells that become eggs which are released when the woman menstruates.

They also produce estrogen and progesterone, the hormones that adjust the menstrual cycle and have an effect on the growth of breasts and body hair as well as affecting the development of the female body shape.

What types of tumors are there?

This normally happens in an organised manner but occasionally they grow abnormally and form a growth that we know as a tumor.

This tumor may be benign or it may be malignant. If it is benign, it is not cancerous and does not spread to other parts of the body. A malignant tumor, on the other hand, is cancerous and will often spread, making mestastases or secondary cancers.

Ovarian cancer is malignant and can occur in either one or both of the ovaries. There are three main groups that are related to the cells where the cancer starts.

Epithelial ovarian cancer, as its name implies, grows in the epithelium which is the surface of the ovary. It is the most common and accounts for around 90 percent of ovarian cancer. It mainly affects post menopausal women.

Another kind of epithelial tumor is a borderline tumor which grows much more slowly than its regular counterpart. These can normally be removed successfully even if diagnosed at an advanced stage.

There is a very rare form of ovarian cancer called germ cell ovarian cancer that starts in the cells that develop into eggs. This only accounts for about 5 percent of ovarian cancers and usually occurs only in women under 30.

The other five percent of ovarian cancers are generally sex-chord stromal cell ovarian cancer that affects the ovary cells responsible for female hormones. It can affect women of all ages.

Who is at risk of getting ovarian cancer?

The cause of ovarian cancer is unknown but there are some risk factors that have been identified through research. Although having these risk factors may increase your chances of developing ovarian cancer, they do not mean that you will necessarily get the disease. However, knowledge of these risk factors can be helpful. If you are concerned by having any of these risk factors, it is important to talk to your healthcare professional.

Factors that may increase your risk of ovarian cancer include:

Age- Around 90 percent of ovarian cancers affect women over 40.

Cultural background - Caucasian women in western society have higher rates of ovarian cancer than African or Asian women.

Number of pregnancies - Women who have never been pregnant appear to have a higher risk of ovarian cancer.

Family history - Between 5 and 10% of ovarian cancers are genetic. Researchers believe that the genes responsible for breast cancer (BRCA1 and BRCA2) are involved in almost all cases of familial ovarian cancer as well as familial breast cancer. It is also thought that these same damaged genes may be responsible for some endometrial and colon cancers. If you are genetically predisposed to any ovarian, breast, endometrial or colon cancers, you may have an increased risk of getting ovarian cancer.

Infertility and taking fertility drugs - Women who have had fertility drugs may be at a higher risk although infertility itself is a risk factor so this cannot be taken as a clear indication.

Hormone Replacement Therapy - The use of estrogen only HRT which is usually when you have had a hysterectomy, has been identified as a possible risk factor for ovarian cancer, particularly if you have been on this therapy for over ten years.

Lifestyle factors - Obesity is a risk factor associated with ovarian cancer as is a diet that is high in fat.

Can I reduce the risk of ovarian cancer?

Currently, there are no known procedures to prevent or detect early ovarian cancer but there are ways to reduce the risks. Some of these are:

Oral contraceptives - Research has found that the use of oral contraceptives can cut the risk of ovarian cancer by up to 60 percent if taken for a period of five years during your life.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding - Breastfeeding delays ovulation after childbirth and therefore decreases your risk of ovarian cancer. However, there is no guarantee that breastfeeding will stop you from developing ovarian cancer.

Enjoy a low fat diet - A high fat diet has been identified as a risk factor in ovarian cancer. Therefore, it makes sense to stick to a low fat diet with lots of fresh fruit and vegetables.

Tubal ligation or hysterectomy - These operations are only performed with a valid medical reason but it is believed that they both reduce the risk of ovarian cancer.

People with a strong family history of ovarian cancer may opt to speak to a genetic counselor that can assess whether you are at risk of developing the disease. If your family history suggests the damaged genes associated with ovarian, breast, endometrial, or colon cancer, it may be wise to have genetic testing. If these tests show the damaged BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, you may be refe.rred to a gynecological oncologist to consider ways to reduce your risk.

Early symptoms of ovarian cancer

Because there is no screening test available for ovarian cancer, it is recommended that you have a regular pelvic vaginal checkup to see if there are any changes in your ovaries. It is also vital that you consult your healthcare specialist if you notice any possible signs of this illness. Because the symptoms are often common to many other medical conditions, diagnosis of ovarian cancer can be difficult

However, if you have any of the following symptoms that are unusual for you and that persist for more than a week, see your doctor without delay.

Some symptoms of ovarian cancer may include:

Stomach discomfort of pain in the pelvic area

Persistent nausea or wind.

Feeling constantly bloated or ‘full'.

Unexplained weight gain.

Loss of appetite or unexplained weight loss

Bowel changes

Frequency or urgency in urination

Lethargy.

Pain during intercourse.

Unexplained vaginal bleeding.

Sometimes, ovarian cancers are wrongly diagnosed as irritable bowel syndrome or menopause so if you are concerned, ask to be referred to a gynecological oncologist who can order tests to rule out ovarian cancer. It is rare that these symptoms will be ovarian cancer but if it is, early detection gives an excellent chance of survival.

Diagnosing ovarian cancer

If your doctor suspects ovarian cancer, you will be referred to a gynecological oncologist who will organize tests which may include any or all of the following:

An internal pelvic examination.

Blood tests

Chest and stomach x-rays.

A barium enema to rule out bowel problems

Ultrasound scans

If the results show a likelihood of ovarian cancer, you will be recommended to have an operation to confirm the diagnosis (none of the abovementioned tests can be sure). During the operation, if the surgeon finds ovarian cancer, they will normally remove the cancer as well as the ovaries.

It is important to understand before the surgery that this may happen so learn all you can about your illness and the outcomes before the operation.

Anne Wolski has worked in the health and welfare industry for more than 30 years. She is a co-director of http://www.magnetic-health-online.com and http://www.betterhealthshoppe.com which are both information portals with many interesting medical articles. She is also an associate of http://www.timzbiz.com which features many articles on internet marketing and resources.

Posted byyour home dream at 11:14 AM 0 comments Links to this post

Human Papilloma Virus and Cancers

In recent years, it has become clear that certain types of human cancers have a viral component to their etiology. Cancers due to Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) are most common among these. This has been a study of intense research for number of years. Specific types of HPV genotypes were found to be the causative agents of some common cancers, most notable invasive cervical carcinoma. Apart from this anogenital cancer, HPV’s are also causally associated with other anogenital cancers such as cancers of vulva, vagina, penis and anus. HPV is also responsible for approximately 20-30% of head and neck cancers.

Association OF HPV with Cervical cancer

The link between HPV and cervical cancer is now established beyond doubts. Many epidemiological, and molecular evidences suggest the causal association of HPV’s with cervical cancer. It has been estimated that about 500,000 women acquire cervical cancers every year and 75% of this are from developing countries. In United States about 13000 cervical cancer cases are diagnosed every year and about 7000 deaths annually from prevalent disease.
Evidence suggests that the great majority of all grades of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia can be attributed to cancer-associated types of HPV infections. It has been estimated that only about 10% of the HPV patients would develop cervical dysplasia and of these only few people would develop cervical cancer. Studies conducted on HPV DNA in a variety of genital lesions suggested that HPV types 16 and 18 are most closely associated with risk of genital cancers and some of HPV types are considered to be more prevalent among cervical cancer patients in a specific geographical areas; HPV 45 in Western African.
The development of cervical cancer is associated with factors other than just high risk HPV infection. Factors like impaired cell mediated immunity, long term use of contraceptives and smoking also increase the risk of gaining and the persistence of HPV types which in turn may lead to cervical cancers.

Association of HPV with other anogenital cancers

Strong links between HPV and anogenital cancers such as penile, anal, vulvar cancers have been demonstrated by many studies. These cancers are formed from lesions develop in the vagina, vulva, penis and anus as the result of sexual contact. But the exact role of HPV in the natural history of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions is still unknown.
Studies indicate that about 1% of sexually active adults in the United States show visible genital wart and about 15 % have sub clinical infection. The most commonly detected HPV types were found to be HPV 16 and 18. But, HPV types 56, 59-64 and 71 also have been isolated in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

Association of HPV with head and neck cancer

The term head and neck cancer refer to the cancers in the oral cavity, lip, nose, para nasal sinuses, naso-pharynx, oro-parynx, larynx, oesophagus, salivary glands, soft tissues of the neck and ear. Oral cancer is the sixth most prevalent cancer worldwide and about 620,000 patients are diagnosed with cancer of oral cavity every year. Many studies have found evidence suggestive of a role for human papilloma virus in head and neck cancer. Though the exact mode of transmission of HPV infection in the head and neck region has not been determined, it’s association with sexual behavior and perinatal transmission have been demonstrated.
During the pathogenesis of HPV, it enters to the host through the mucosal epithelial layer surface. Oral mucosa resembles the mucosa of the genital region in their histological structure. As the correlation between HPV and cervical cancer are well established, the resemblance of the mucosal histology led to the suggestion that HPV could play a role in the development of benign and malignant lesions of the oral mucosa.
After the first report of papilloma virus in tongue carcinoma, many studies have shown the presence of HPV DNA in oral cavity and head and neck cancer. The most prevalent HPV types in these were found to be HPV 16 and 18. Further epidemiologic and molecular investigation should be carried out to establish a precise relationship between HPV and head and neck cancer.

HPV INDUCED CANCER DETECTION

Detective measures to date have centered on screening programs for HPV induced cancers. The most common and the traditional way of screening for cervical cancer and cervical dysplasia are to conduct a pap smear test. This has significantly reduced the incidence of cervical cancers in recent years. If the result is turned out to be positive, then the colposcopy would be carried. Since cervical cancer and anal cancer resembles in their biological features, it has been observed that screening for anal high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with anal pap smear allows detecting individuals at risk of developing anal cancers. To obtain a confirmatory result, an anoscopic examination should be performed.
Detection of earlier stage of head and neck cancers as well as premalignant lesions can be done by regular physical examinations by the doctor. Any abnormalities should be further evaluated. An endoscopy is performed on the samples obtained from throat, larynx, and upper esophagus. Computed tomographic (CT) scans, magnetic resonances imaging (MRI) scans or ultrasounds could be performed to identify the size and extent to which the cancer has spread from its site of origin.
No standard screening tests are followed for vulvar cancers. In vulvar cancer lymph node pathologic status is the most important predictive factor. A study conducted by De Ceccoc et al indicated that Lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel-node biopsy under gamma-detecting probe guidance are easy and reliable methods for the detection of sentinel node in early vulvar cancer. Coloscopy can also be used to detect abnormalities on vulvar epethilia.
The above mentioned tests cannot be used to detect the presence or absence of the virus which would eventually cause a cancer. A test based on the hybrid capture technologies is now available to detect 13 cancer causing kinds of HPV. This technology is based on the principle of signal amplification of a hybrid species produced by RNA probes fixed with HPV DNA. Polymerase chain reaction is one of the most sensitive tests for HPV DNA detection. But Zhao M. et al suggest that there could be limitations in this method when applying to a broad population. Studies indicate that HPV DNA testing is one of the most effective tests which could be used for the prevention of cervical cancer.
In a study conducted by Reid et al, to compare the efficacy of cervical cytology, cervicography and/or DNA hybridization for cervical cancer screening, showed that none of the tests succeeded in identifying all the abnormalities.

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